デジタル版『渋沢栄一伝記資料』

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公開日: 2016.11.11 / 最終更新日: 2020.3.6

3編 社会公共事業尽瘁並ニ実業界後援時代

1部 社会公共事業

3章 国際親善
3節 国際団体及ビ親善事業
16款 汎太平洋倶楽部
■綱文

第37巻 p.397-404(DK370099k) ページ画像

大正13年4月17日(1924年)

是ヨリ先四月十二日、アメリカ合衆国下院ニ於テ、千九百二十四年移民法案通過ス。是日、汎太平洋倶楽部例会帝国ホテルニ開カレ、栄一臨席シテソノ非ナルヲ説ク。


■資料

国民新聞 第一一五七九号 大正一三年四月一八日 七十年の努力は無駄になつた 渋沢老子涙を揮つて 汎太平洋倶楽部で対米談(DK370099k-0001)
第37巻 p.397-398 ページ画像

国民新聞 第一一五七九号大正一三年四月一八日
  七十年の努力は無駄になつた
    渋沢老子涙を揮つて
      汎太平洋倶楽部で対米談
極めて少数の人間の単なる感情から、今多くの我が同胞の運命が失意のどん底に陥らうとしてゐる、そこで常に太平洋沿岸の大勢に注意を
 - 第37巻 p.398 -ページ画像 
払つてゐる汎太平洋倶楽部は十七日正午から帝国ホテルに定会を開き此の問題に就て意見の交換を為すべく七十年間日米親善の為に斡旋して来た渋沢栄一子を請じて其講演を聴取した、出席者中には鎌田栄吉氏や米国大使館員、早大教授のベニンホワ博士も交つてゐたが、一同軽いランチを摂つた後、渋沢子は
 『私はもう七年前に経済界から隠居した身分ですが
  国民としては 未だ隠居してはゐません、これは私が死んでも辞表を出す事の出来ないものです、それで進んでやつて来ました』と冒頭して、今を去る七十二年前の嘉永六年始めて亜米利加からペルリが来朝した時、折から支那の阿片戦争で西洋人の暴戻に対して極端な排外思想者であつた子自身も、更に年を経て外国の長所を知り殊にアメリカに対しては更に内面的な事情と経済上の相互扶助の必要の理解から親善の感を持つやうになり、殊に移民問題に於ては努力の提供と文明の普遍と有無相通ずるのを欣んでゐたが、近時移民問題に人種的偏見が加はるのを見て悲哀の感に打たれ、曩に国民外交の要を覚つて太平洋沿岸の八商業会議所と、我国の六商業会議所の交歓を企て、爾来両国の国民的交誼のますます濃厚になつて来たのを欣んでゐたところ、今度賃銀の問題から
  白人の圧迫を 受ける邦人の事情を知り、正義人道を重んずる国と云ふのは聞き違ひであつたかと思つた、と一寸皮肉を交へ、更に『吾人は移民を米国式に教育する事には、如何なる難を忍んでも努力する、米国もこれを信じてほしい、七十何年かを無駄な努力をしたように思ふことは自分に取つても可哀想で情ないことだ、かうなるとまた昔の愚痴が出て、排外思想が浮んで来ようとするが、しかし、何時かは道理の通る事をこの老人に信じさせるために、クーリツヂ大統領に望む事は、どうぞ否認権を行使し、高等委員会を設けて研究して戴きたい』と述べ『苟も正義人道を叫ぶ人間ならば、この事の出来ぬ筈はない、私は人間として人間に望む』と結んで内外人の大喝采の中に、渋沢子としては珍らしい迄に強い修辞を用ゐてこの講演を終つた
   ○右演説ハ「竜門雑誌」第四二九号(大正一三年六月)ニ全文掲載シアリ。


万朝報 大正一三年四月一八日 生がひ無しと渋沢子爵も悲憤す 日米親善に数十年の努力も水の泡 高等委員会を設置せよ(DK370099k-0002)
第37巻 p.398-400 ページ画像

万朝報 大正一三年四月一八日
  生がひ無しと渋沢子爵も悲憤す
   日米親善に数十年の努力も水の泡
    高等委員会を設置せよ
汎太平洋クラブ大会は昨十七日午後帝国ホテルで開催されたが、渋沢栄一氏が目下喧しい日米問題に関し
 忌憚ない意見を開陳すると云ふので非常な盛会で、日置益・内田定槌両前大使・鎌田前文相・添田博士等の顔も見え、多数の米人も参列した、席上渋沢子は悲痛の面持で、時折は涙をのんで次の様な広長舌を揮つた――『私は語学も碌に出来ないが
 日米 問題は非常に心配な問題であつたので永い間研究もし微力乍ら努力もして来た、私は埼玉の田舎に生れたものだが、十四歳(嘉永
 - 第37巻 p.399 -ページ画像 
六年)の時、浦賀にペルリが遣つて来て、日本に通商を迫つた、その当時日本国内には
 攘夷 論が猛烈で、私も攘夷論者の一人となつた、その頃の攘夷論は今から見れば無論非難もあらうが、その趣旨はあながちに間違ひ許りでも無かつた
 曩に帝国
   の同盟国
であつた英国をこゝに引き合ひに出すのは不本意だが、その頃英国は例の阿片問題で支那に迫つて居た、同問題は
 正義 から云へば無論支那に同情したい、米国も英国の夫れと同じ筆法で日本に迫るのでは無いかと思つたので、私共は猛烈な攘夷論を主張したのです、その後私は上京して一つ橋に学び《(仕へ)》、海外に遊学することゝなつて、海外の事情を研究した結果は
 日本 が攘夷などを主張するのは間違いであることが分り、帰国と共に海外諸邦と親しむ事となつた、殊に私の親米精神は曩の反動として濃厚になつた、その後日米間には条約改正が行はれたり経済関係が益す深くなつて、日米の輸出入貿易は急速に
 進展 した、又一面にあつては、邦人が米国土に移住し、加州方面に於ける邦人の利益は次第に増加され、米人もまた得る処は多大であつた
 此の時に
   当り邦人
の米国移民が加州に於て問題となり、日米の国交は危険を増して来たそして明治四十年頃には、米国において邦人学童問題が起り、職業差別の
 問題 が生じて東洋人排斥、日本人排斥の声が熾烈となつたので、千九百六年に至つて時の外相小村寿太郎氏は日米間に紳士協約を結び国民相互の外交に依つて邦人の移民問題を一時的に解決した、又他方にありては日米両国の商業会議所の主催で観光団を組織して
 両国 民がお互の国情等を研究する事となり、両国から観光団を派遣して日米問題に就いて懇談した、然るに両国の関係は依然として不良で、大正二年には加州土地法が制定されて邦人の借地権は三年に限定された、日本移民排斥の
 理由 は、日本人が農業が上手であり、賃金が安いと云ふのにある勿論風俗習慣に就ても米人に好感を与へなかつたのも事実である
 殊に最近
   では米国
の政治家が政策の為めに排日を利用して居る――日頃正義人道を主張する米国としては実に心得ぬ主張である』と語気
 痛烈 を極め『其後大正四年桑港商業会議所会頭で親日の巨頭であるアレキサンダー氏と相談の上、日米両国に『日米協会《(関係委員会)》』を設立し今日に及んで居るが、其当時私は日本の対米輿論として『日本人は紳士協約を遵守し不都合な
 入国 を為さぬ事、第二には米国滞留中の移民の習慣風俗を改善す
 - 第37巻 p.400 -ページ画像 
る事、その代り米国は日本人児童の排斥を為さず、人種の差別待遇を為さぬ事を希望した、アレキサンダー君も是れには非常に共鳴して日米親善に
 尽粋 してくれた、所がその後日米関係は漸次悪化して、千九百二十年(大正九年)にはインシユレル・レフレンダムが採用された、その翌年即ち大正十年には
 人も知る
   華府会議
が開かれて、軍備制限や太平洋問題が論議されたが、肝腎の加州の移民問題は論究を見なかつた、私は時の
 政府 原首相・内田外相等を説いて同問題の解決を促したが、政府は私共の意見を入れて呉れませんでした』と悲憤の涙をこぼし、同年米国にてアレキサンダー氏と談合の上、日米の国交を改善する機関として両国に高等委員の
 設置 を計り、時の政府を動かす事に努力した様を語り『折角の努力も水の泡となつて成立を見なかつた、そして両国の関係は益す悪化急迫し、米国下院ではあの様な排日的移民案が通過し、まさかと思つた上院も亦同案に類似の
 移民 案を通過させた、日米の親交の為めに数十年努力して来た私共は本当に生き甲斐はありません』と残念がり『しかし今度の
 米の措置
   は道理で
はありません、米国人も考へる時が来ませう、私は道理は必ず通ずることを信じて疑はぬ』と力を入れ、最後に米国大統領、クーリツヂ氏が
正義 人道の為めに排日的移民案を否認する事を熱望し、日米両国に高等委員会の設置を絶叫し、日米両国の福祉共益を嘱望したが、聴衆は非常な感激を受けた。


都新聞 第一三〇四一号大正一三年四月一八日 排日移民問題で渋沢子の憤慨 汎太平洋の午餐会で 列席の米人熱誠に動かさる(DK370099k-0003)
第37巻 p.400-401 ページ画像

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冊子版の『渋沢栄一伝記資料』をご参照ください。

Japan Advertiser No.10, 306, p.1, p.8, April 18, 1924 SHIBUSAWA THINKS LABOR IS WASTED(DK370099k-0004)
第37巻 p.401-404 ページ画像

Japan Advertiser No.10,306,p.1,p.8, April 18,1924
    SHIBUSAWA THINKS LABOR IS WASTED

 Veteran Worker for America-Japan Friendship Is Sad and Discouraged

          MAKES DRAMATIC TALK

Noteworthy Address Given Before Pan-Pacific Club
           Americans Speak
  "In the face of what the American Congress has now done I feel that my 20 years of labor in promoting America-Japan friendship has been wasted. I am almost inclined to whine over the futility of my work."
  Then Viscount Shibusawa's kindly yet dominant face lifted eyes half hidden behind wrinkled lids opened wide with fervor. "But I am optimistic. I believe that President Coolidge will veto this bill and will be brave enough to consent to the plan for a Joint High Commission which will settle all outstanding difficulties in the immigration question."
  The Pan-Pacific Club meeting yesterday noon presented a dramatic picture, taking place at an hour when the emotions
 - 第37巻 p.402 -ページ画像 
 of two Powers are at high pitch over action now taking place in Washington. It was psychologically significant, then, that Viscount Shibusawa, venerable statesman who has helped lead Japan from a feudal era to its present-day position as a modern Power, gladiator of international peace and for years an industrious worker for a satisfactory solution of the immigration problem, should be the chief speaker. No wonder that the little room in the Imperial Hotel was crowded to the windows. No wonder that the crowd sat intently quiet for two hours while Viscount Shibusawa talked and his speech was translated. Involuntarily, he kept speaking right through occasional applause, anxious to relieve himself of pent-up emotions.
          Calls Law an Insult
  Chairman Uchida, former Ambassador to Turkey, prepared the ground for Viscount Shibusawa's speech, when he labeled the immigration legislation in America as "a spit in the face." It was unjust, he said, because of existing friendly relations between Japan and America; and unnecessary because the Gentlemen's Agreement is effectual and sufficient. When Viscount Shibusawa arose he was greeted by insistent applause.
  Viscount Shibusawa began by drawing a picture of the consternation that reigned in Japan when Commodore Perry's "Black Ships" appeared off the coast, when he himself was but 14 years old. A wave of anti-foreign sentiment swept over the land, and though but a boy he caught that spirit. Statesmen of the day said that a foreign invasion was imminent, and he believed it.
  But as he grew up under the teachings of Confucius and later became a retainer in the declining days of the Tokugawa Shogunate at Hitotsubashi his outlook became broader. But only after he visited Europe and America did he gain an international viewpoint, become actually pro-American. He traced his work from then on when he labored for more friendly relations between his own country and the United States.
  When the anti-alien land laws were passed in California in 1913 he began his work of trying to find a solution for the immigration problem and the treatment of Japanese in America. A movement started in 1909 while he was in America with a business mission found impetus through the passage of this law, and the Japan-America Relations Committees were founded in America and in Japan.
        Agitation Twice Defeated
  Following the passage of other laws in California in 1920 which almost deprived Japanese of the right to own land, these
 - 第37巻 p.403 -ページ画像 
 two committees started agitation for a Joint High Commission, which would be backed by the governments of both countries, in order to discuss problems relative to Japanese in America. The commission would present its findings to the respective governments for approval. Viscount Shibusawa told how he had fought for the adoption of the plan, and how he was defeated on two occasions by Washington officials. The last time he tried was at the Washingtion conference, but those in power believed that the time was unpropitious.
  "Now we see the consequences. The American House of Representatives has passed a law barring Japanese from America and the Senate is about to pass it. I feel that my labors have been wasted. I am even inclined to whine over the futility of my work.
  "Yet I am optimistic when I think of what President Coolidge and Secretary Hughes will do. I hope that the President will veto the measure and that he will be brave enough to consent to the plan for a Joint High Commission. This commission would discuss thoroughly all problems that have arisen, and from its conclusions and recommendations a new treaty would be signed by the two nations. Thereby this long pending question would be solved and our friendship would be placed on a firm and lasting footing."
  The applause that followed spoke eloquently of the feelings that had been touched by the mixed audience of Americans and Japanese.
        Misson Adopts Resolution
  The chairman then announced that Mr. H. B. Benninghoff desired to announce a resolution which was adopted yesterday morning by the reference committee of the Japan Mission of the American Baptist Foreign Mission Society, now in session in Tokyo. The resolution, read by Mr. Benninghoff, placed the committee on record as "deploring the recent action of Congress, which results in an unjust discrimination against the people of Japan. We recognize the need in the United States for more stringent immigration laws, but we sincerely feel that the discriminatory measure just passed is uncalled for and unworthy of the ideals of the American people. It seems to us clearly to contravene the principles that have characterized the intercourse between the two countries from the days of Commodore Perry and Townsend Harris to the present time.
  "We heartily pledge ourselves as citizens of the United States and as lovers of Japan and her people, whose guests we are, to continue to labor unceasingly for the day when Christian
 - 第37巻 p.404 -ページ画像 
 ideals of brotherhood and justice shall characterize the laws and customs that shall prevail in our international relationships."
  Dr. James H. Frankiln [Franklin], a member of the Baptist Foreign Mission Society and of the National Committee on Japan-America Relations, spoke concerning the resolution adopted.
        Dr. Frnklin [Franklin] is Grieved
  "As an individual American citizen I confess that I am shocked, grieved and humiliated by the action taken at Washington," he said. "It is a strange voice that we now hear coming from America. I am proud that I am an American, proud of her achievements, proud of her spirit, but now I sit in sackcloth and ashes. It is strange to my mind that my country should now attempt to crucify the spirit of brotherhood. Tomorrow is Good Friday, and I shall pray that this spirit be saved from crucifixion.
  "But through my mind flashes the words of Christ: 'Forgive them for they know not what they do.' I am confident that in the end right and justice will triumph and that though this spirit of brotherhood may now be crucified there will be a day of resurrection. Viscount Shibusawa has not labored in vain as he has just said. In America where his name is synonymous with good will and friendship and fairness, he has sown seeds. There is bound to be a harvest in the form of mutual understanding. I am leaving for America next week and I shall say the same things there that I am at this hour. I am confident, as is Viscount Shibusawa, that President Coolidge will veto this law, which is unjust, un-Christian and un-American."
          Shibusawa Is Moved.
  Stirred by Doctor Franklin's outburst, Viscount Shibusawa again rose to his feet, recalled by the mention of the name of Townsend Harris of an incident that happened at that time, 72 years ago. He said that when Townsend Harris' interpreter was killed at Hitotsubashi, all foreign diplomats and representatives fled to Yokohama. Townsend Harris was not afraid, however, and remained in Tokyo unharmed. "That was real Bushido―real bravery, and it won the hearts of the Japanese."
  Mr. K. Harada, member of the Secretariat of the League of Nations, the other speaker at the Pan-Pacific Luncheon, outlined briefly the organization of the Secretariat, its work and its future.
   ○本資料第三十四巻所収「日米関係委員会」大正十三年四月二十一日ノ条参照