デジタル版『渋沢栄一伝記資料』

  詳細検索へ

公開日: 2016.11.11 / 最終更新日: 2020.3.6

3編 社会公共事業尽瘁並ニ実業界後援時代

2部 実業・経済

2章 交通・通信
4節 通信
2款 日米間電信料低減問題
■綱文

第52巻 p.110-129(DK520011k) ページ画像

大正11年1月16日(1922年)

是日、アメリカ合衆国人ヴィー・エス・マクラチ、栄一ニ書翰ヲ発シ、日米間電信料低減ニ関シテ尽力ヲ依頼シ来ル。後数次ニ亘リ両者間ニ信書ノ往復アリタル末、大正十五年八月十九日、栄一、マクラチニ対シ、本件ニツキ未ダ政府ト交渉ヲ為スベキ時期ニ非ラザルヲ以テ、斡旋差控ヘタキ旨返書ヲ発ス。


■資料

(ヴィー・エス・マクラチ)書翰控 渋沢栄一宛一九二二年一月一六日(DK520011k-0001)
第52巻 p.110-112 ページ画像

(ヴィー・エス・マクラチ)書翰控  渋沢栄一宛一九二二年一月一六日
             (ヴィー・エス・マクラチ氏所蔵)
            (COPY)
THE SACRAMENTO BEE
  Sacramento, Cal.
 Office of the Publisher.
                  January 16, 1922.
Viscount Ei-ichi Shibusawa.
  2 Kabutocho Nihonbashi,
  Tokyo, Japan.
My dear Viscount:
  You were kind enough to express interest in the subject of trans-Pacific news communication and your desire to promote the establishment and permanent maintenance of adequate news service between Japan and this country, and you indicated, also, the intention of taking up that subject actively on your return to Japan. In accordance with the understanding had between us, therefore I am enclosing for your information certain data in connection with that subject.
  You will perhaps agree with me that a news service between the two countries to be of value should be regular and reliable; it should inform people on each side of sentiment and events on the other side. A service of this kind ought to be free from government control or censorship; it ought to be unsubsidized, independent of ownership and management and selfsupporting. Such a service can not be maintained save at an extremely low word rate.
  At present these conditions cannot be fulfilled in any other way, so far as United States co-operation is concerned, save by utilizing the radio facilities of the navy wireless. That is being done very effectively under Public Resolution 48 of Congress and
 - 第52巻 p.111 -ページ画像 
 three separate news reports are transmitted daily from San Francisco across the Pacific. Japan receives the advantage of two of these by connection with Guam through cable.
  Japan has a contract with the Radio Corporation of America which provides that radio communication between United States and Japan must be through the stations of that Company and at rates fixed by it. The Public Resolution 48 also provides that the American Navy shall not be permitted to transmit commeircal or news messages between two points when privately owned stations are prepared to handle the service.
  The American Radio Corporation has established a service between Honolulu and Tokyo and it charged in some months back, 26 1/2c a word, for such service. I understand there has been a small reduction since then. The rate for American navy wireless between San Francisco and Honolulu is 3c. It was because of this complication that Japan could not receive an adequate report on the Arms Limitation Conference in November and December. You can receive full information on this point from Mr. Y. Iwanaga, managing director of Kokusai and from the enclosed reprint of my article in Editor & Publisher.
  It is so manifestly to the advantage of both Japan and the United States to maintain friendly understanding between the two countries and it is so manifest that such undestanding cannot be maintained save by unrestricted and reliable daily news communication that those of us on both sides of the ocean who are desirous of maintaining friendly relations between the two countries should not spare any effort to bring about the necessary conditions.
  Manifestly at this time and until such time as private radio corporations can and will accord the necessary facilities and the low word rate, the news communication must be maintained through use of government operated radio stations. There should, therefore, be as soon as possible, such friendly understanding between your government and ours as will utilize these facilities along the lines suggested.
  You may assume that I shall be glad to do, on this side, anything I can to further the establishment and accordance of the necessary facilities for this communication.
              Sincerely yours,
                 V. S. McClatchy.
vs L
Enclosures:
 Articles in E&P.
  ○マクラチニ就テハ、本資料第三十三巻所収「第四回米国行」大正十年十一
 - 第52巻 p.112 -ページ画像 
月七日ノ条参照。


渋沢栄一書翰 ヴィー・エス・マクラチ宛一九二二年一〇月一四日(DK520011k-0002)
第52巻 p.112-113 ページ画像

渋沢栄一書翰  ヴィー・エス・マクラチ宛一九二二年一〇月一四日
            (ヴィー・エス・マクラチ氏所蔵)
             (COPY)
                  Tokyo, Japan.
                  October 14, 1922.
Mr. V. S. McClatchy,
 The Sacramento Bee,
  Sacramento, Cal.
My dear Mr. McClatchy:
  I have duly received your valued communications of both July 15 and July 20. I sincerely appreciate and admire the indefatigable energy and interest with which you are endeavoring to carry out the plan of extending the operation of cheap wireless rates for the press ― a plan the realization of which means so much in the interest of international commerce and friendship. I need not assure you that what influence I may possess will be entirely thrown in favor of a plan so laudable and important.
  The matter has been actively taken up by the leading newspapers and news agencies here. Pressure of business compels me to ask Mr. Zumoto to take the matter up with you in detail, as I understand he is also in receipt of communications from you. I may, however, tell you in a general way that the views in official circles here are rather favorably inclined toward the proposed utilization of the Japanese naval wireless facilities.
  In your note of July 20, you quote a cable to the effect that a syndicate headed by me has asked the Government's sanction for the establihsment of a wireless company with a capital of \200,000,000 for operations with America and Europe. The information conveyed by this message requires correction in more than one respect; the scheme so far as I understand has not reached a state of materialization suggested by this cablegram. In any case, I wish you to clearly understand that I have no material interest in this matter, although the scheme has my moral support. I think that the realization of a scheme like this is bound to go far in bringing the leading nations close together, which is the object for which I am devoting, as you know, my best effort.
  The delegation to the coming Pan-Pacific Commercial Conference at Honolulu from Japan contains a gentleman in the person of Baron Y. Togo, who《*》 is specially charged to cooperate with you in connection with this question.
  Thanking you for your courtesies while I was in your
 - 第52巻 p.113 -ページ画像 
 country recently and heartily reciprocating the wish you have expressed of renewing our acquaintance on either side of the Pacific, preferably on this side, I remain,
                Yours sincerely
                (Signed) E. Shibusawa
*(欄外後筆)
 See Baron Togo's resolutions at p. 19 "Trans-Pacific Communication" enclosed
  ○右ノ(後筆)ノ部分ハ鉛筆書ニシテ、コピー送付ノ際ノ書入レナルベシ。同封 Trans-Pacific Communication 東郷安提出決議文ハ略ス。


(ヴィー・エス・マクラチ)書翰控 渋沢栄一宛一九二二年一一月一八日(DK520011k-0003)
第52巻 p.113-114 ページ画像

(ヴィー・エス・マクラチ)書翰控  渋沢栄一宛一九二二年一一月一八日
              (ヴィー・エス・マクラチ氏所蔵)
             (COPY)
               San Francisco, California.
                 November 18th, 1922.
Viscount E. Shibusawa,
  2 Kabutocho, Nihonbashi,
  Tokyo, Japan.
My dear Viscount Shibusawa:
  Through the courtesy of Mr. Sato, of the Japanese delegation to the Commercial Congress of the Pan-Pacific Union, I received your letter of October 14th in connection with the subject of news communication between Japan and the United States, in which we are mutually so much interested.
  I appreciate your interest in the matter, and the steps which you have taken to secure action on the part of the Japanese Government looking toward the end desired.
  Noting from your letter that Mr. Zumoto, at your request, would take up the matter with me in detail, and having received from him a lengthy statement in regard thereto, I have advised him fully as to results of the Conference in Honolulu, and as to the existing situation. I need not, therefore, repeat those details in this letter. It is sufficient to say that the situation is most satisfactory, and that it is only necessary for the proper department of the Japanese Government to indicate to the Director of Communication of the U. S. Navy its desire and willingness to co-operate in the use of the Government radio of the two countries, for news exchange, in order to secure at once an arrangement under which news reports can be received and sent.
  In view of your indicated desires and the steps which you have taken, I feel that you will be able, with your associates, on the return of Baron Togo, by the "Korea Maru" December
 - 第52巻 p.114 -ページ画像 
 12th, to induce the Japanese Government to inaugurate the necessary policy.
  Certain resolutions were offered by Baron Togo, at the Conference, and with slight verbal changes, unanimously approved by the Resolutions Committee, and unanimously passed by the Conference. Copy of the Resolutions so passed will be found enclosed.
  With appreciation of the courtesies received from you while in this country, and the great interest which you have manifested in the matter in which we are mutually concerned, and in the hope that our acquaintance may be renewed in the early future, I am
             Very sincerely yours,
                  (V. S. McClatchy)
VSM-M
Enc (1)


(ヴィー・エス・マクラチ)書翰 渋沢栄一宛一九二六年二月一一日(DK520011k-0004)
第52巻 p.114-123 ページ画像

(ヴィー・エス・マクラチ)書翰  渋沢栄一宛一九二六年二月一一日
                   (渋沢子爵家所蔵)
    "Pacific Coast Unity for World Trade Expansion"
      PACIFIC FOREIGN TRADE COUNCIL
      Committee on Trans-Pacific Communication
           OFFICE OF CHAIRMAN
         910 HUMBOLDT BANK BUILDING
         SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA
                    Feb. 11, 1926.
Viscount Ei-ichi Shibusawa,
  2 Kabutocho Nihonbashi,
  Tokyo, Japan.
My dear Viscount Shibusawa:
  You and I are equally earnest in seeking to assure friendly relations in the future between Japan and the United States. There has been an honest difference of opinion as to the proper procedure in immigration matters; there will be none, I feel sure, as to the desirability of comprehensive news communication between the two countries as a necessary requisite for maintenance of commerce and international understanding.
  There is now an opportunity to secure at once the desired news communication in the offer of the Radio Corporation of America to inaugurate a rate of ten cents per word for news between San Francisco and Tokyo in place of the present prohibitive rate of 27¢ if the Japanese Government will agree thereto. Approval of this rate has been withheld by the Communication Department of Japan, as I am advised, in the fear that congestion of commercial messages would be caused by pressure of news matter if this low rate were enforced. That objection dis
 - 第52巻 p.115 -ページ画像 
appears, however, in the face of a condition contained in the Radio Corporation's proposition to the effect that if such congestion occurs then the ten cent rate shall be suspended for 48 hours. You may obtain full information on this point from Mr. Sekizo Uyeda of the Nippon Dempo News Agency.
  It is hoped you will aid in bringing to the attention of the Japanese government, and particularly the Minister of Communication the facts in the matter which seem to justify approval of the Radio Corporation's plan in Japan's interest.
  The low news rate as a means of promoting communication between the two countries has received approval from a number of Japanese statesmen and commercial leaders, yourself perhaps among the number. The enclosures will furnish some information on this point. They include a general statement of the situation issued by this committee; reference to Baron Togo's resolutions at the Commercial Conference of the Pan-Pacific Union, Honolulu, October, 1922, in my Seattle address "B" pages 10 and 11; text of these resolutions at pages 8 and 9 of my Portland adress "A"; text of petition presented to the Minister of Communication in September, 1922, by a committee including Mr. Motosada Zumoto and Mr. Y. Iwanaga, now General Manager of Kokusai.
  With renewed assurances of warm personal esteem and of appreciation for your life-long service in promoting friendly understanding between the two nations,
              Sincerely yours,
                    (Signed)
                  V. S. McClatchy
                   Chairman, Committee on
                 Trans-Pacific Communication
                    of The Pacific Foreign
                        Trade Council
VSM. DK
4 encls
(右訳文)
          (栄一鉛筆)
          上田碩三氏・岩永裕吉氏・東郷男爵等ヘモ協議シテ適当ノ回答案作成致度事
 東京市日本橋区兜町二 (三月二日入手)
  子爵 渋沢栄一閣下 桑港、一九二六年二月十一日
          太平洋外国貿易会内太平洋横断通信委員
                 ヴヰ・エス・マクラツチー
拝啓 閣下と小生とは等しく将来日米両国間の友誼確立を翹望して止まざるものに候、移民問題に関する適当なる手続上の件に就ては事実意見の相違有之候得共、通商の維持と国際的諒解の為めに必要なる要件として、両国間に諒解の容易なる新聞通信の交換を行ふ事に就ては
 - 第52巻 p.116 -ページ画像 
何等意見の相違無之次第に御座候
米国無電会社に於ては若し日本政府が同意するに於ては、桑港・東京間の新聞電報現行料金、一語に付廿七仙と申す法外の高率を改め、一語に付拾仙に引下げんとの案を提出せるにより、従来の希望を玆に実現するの機会到来せるものと存候、小生の受け取れる通知によれば、日本の逓信省に於ては若し此低料金を実施する事とならば、新聞通信の電報輻湊し、商業電報の混雑を来す虞ありとの理由により、此案認可を差控えたりとの事に御座候、乍併米国無電会社に於ては、若し斯る混雑発生せば、十仙料金は四十八時間停止すべしとの案を提出せるにより、斯る反対は消滅すべしと存候、此の点に関しては日本電報通信社の上田碩三氏より詳細を御承知被下度候
日本政府特に逓信大臣が此件に関する実際につきて注意を払はるゝ様御尽力被下度候、米国無電会社が日本の為めに立てたる計画は是認せらるゝものと被存候
両国間の通信の発達に資する手段として料金を低廉にする事は、日本の政治家及主なる実業家の賛成せる処にして、閣下も多分その賛成者の一人なりし事と存候
此点に関しては同封の書類につきて御承知被下度候
此書類中には、我委員より発表せる実情に関するステーメント、小生が沙市に於て試みたる演説の乙、十及十一頁中に掲載せる、一九二二年十月ホノルヽにて汎太平洋聯合商業会議の際東郷男爵によりて提出せられし決議文、小生がポートランドに於て試みし演説甲、八・九頁の決議文、及び頭本元貞・岩永裕吉氏等の委員により一九二二年九月逓信大臣へ提出せられたる請願書全文等含まれ居候
両国の友情的諒解を助長せんが為めに、御生涯を通じて御尽力被遊候に対し玆に更めて深厚なる謝意を奉表候 敬具
(同封書類一)
     "Pacific Coast Unity for World Trade Expansion"
       PACIFIC FOREIGN TRADE COUNCIL
      Committee on Trans-Pacific communication
           OFFICE OF CHAIRMAN
         910 HUMBOLDT BANK BUILDING
          SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA
    NEWS COMMUNICATION WITH JAPAN.
For Information.
Not for publication.
  The activities of the Trans-Pacific Communication Committee of the Pacific Foreign Trade Council, under instructions, have been directed partly to promoting conditions which would insure permanently a low word rate and speedy transmission for news messages across the Pacific as a necessary prerequisite for growth of commerce and maintenance of friendly relations.
  The committee has urged the use of Navy radio for that purpose and for transmission of commercial messages only when and where privately operated stations were not equipped or
 - 第52巻 p.117 -ページ画像 
 willing to render the service. The Navy radio has given us news communication with Hawaii and the Philippines, but, thru lack of cooperation on the part of other nations, has not given us facilities for communication with other countries of the Far East.
  The Radio Corporation of America has an exclusive arrangement with the government of Japan and the Japanese government radio, for interchange of radio messages between United States and Japan. The Corporation has finally agreed after consideration of the facts presented by this committee and at urge of Karl Bickel, President of the United Press, to grant a 10¢ rate for news between San Francisco and Tokyo, in place of the present prohibitive rate of 27¢, provided the Japanese government will assent thereto. Up to this time the Communication Department of Japan has failed to approve the plan.
  The Radio Corporation of America has a franchise from the Philippine government for construction of radio stations in the Philippines and for communication with the United States. The Corporation also is a controlling factor in a contract granted by China for erection of a similar high power station at Shanghai, and is negotiating for similar arrangements with the Dutch Indies, French Indo-China and other countries of the Far East.
  If the low news rate of 10¢ were once established by the Corporation between San Francisco and Tokyo, a similar rate undoubtedly would be extended in time to other Asiatic countries, thus facilitating not only their communication with United States, but also communication among themselves. It becomes desirable, therefore, to convince the Japanese government of the advantages to her commerce and international relations which would follow inauguration of the low trans-Pacific news rate for communication with the United States as proposed by the Radio Corporation.
  The low news rate has already received hearty endorsement from Japanese sources well advised as to the facts. The matter was carefully considered and unanimously approved by the Press Congress of the World in its session at Honolulu in 1921, Japan being represented by Motosada Zumoto and others. In the following year a strong petition was presented to the Communication Department of Japan by commercial and newspaper interests of Japan, urging cooperation with United States for establishment of adequate communication facilities between the two countries, with a low news rate, as essential to Japanese interests. Mr. Y. Iwanaga, now Director of "Kokusai", was among those who pres
 - 第52巻 p.118 -ページ画像 
ented the petition. In 1922, at the commercial conference of the Pan-Pacific Union held at Honolulu, strong resolutions urging the necessity for a low word rate for transmission of news by radio and cable between United States and Asia were introduced by Baron Togo of Japan and unanimously passed. Similar action was taken by the Pacific Foreign Trade Council at Portland in October, 1923, by the National Foreign Trade Council at Seattle, June, 1925, and by the Western Division of the United States Chamber of Commerce at Seattle, September, 1925, at each of which conventions the business interests of Japan and China were represented.
  Careful investigation by the Japanese diplomatic representatives and commercial interests now located in the United States will undoubtedly confirm the judgment already expressed by representative Japanese statesmen and businessmen in this connection and justify such presentation of the facts to the Japanese government as may secure endorsement of the 10¢ word rate for news proposed by the Radio Corporation of America.
         V. S. McClatchy, Chairman Committee.
Feb. 4, 1926

#5
(右訳文)
    日米新聞通信
報告用(公表を禁す)
太平洋外国貿易会の太平洋横断通信委員は同会の指令に基き、通商の発達と対外友誼の維持の為め必要なる前提として、太平洋横断の新聞電報に対する低料金を永久に保証すると共に、迅速なる取扱を行ふに至る様尽力するを以て其の一部の仕事と為せり。
同委員は、私設の無線電信所に於て発信を受付けざるか、又は其設備を有せざる時と場合とに限り、商業通信及前記の目的の為めに、海軍の無電の使用を許可されん事を主張せり。然るに海軍の無電は布哇及比律賓間の新聞通信を行へるも、東洋に於ける諸外国との協力を欠く所より、其等の国々との通信の便宜を与へられざるなり。
米国無電会社は、日米間の無電交換に関して日本政府並に日本政府の無電会社と特別の協定を結びたり。米国無電会社は、此委員より提出の事実、及びユナイテツド・プレス社長カール・ビツケル氏の申請により、若し日本政府に於て同意せば、現行の法外的価格一語廿七仙に替ゆるに一語十仙を以て、桑港・東京間の無電通信を取扱ふ事に遂に同意せり。今日に至るまで日本の逓信省は此の計画に対して同意を与へす。
米国無電会社は比律賓島に無線電信所を建設し、米国との間に無電交換を為すべき特許を受け居れり。又此無電会社は上海に此れと類似の大無線電信所を設置する件に関し、支那との契約上に於て重大なる役目を有し、尚ほ蘭領印度・仏領印度支那及東洋に於ける其他の国々と
 - 第52巻 p.119 -ページ画像 
類似の協定に就きて交渉中なり。
一語金十仙なる低料金が同会社によりて、桑港及東京間に行はるゝに至らば、終には同様の料金が亜細亜の其他の国々との間にも設けらるるに至り、斯くて此等の国々と米国との間のみならす、それら国々相互間に於ける通信も至つて便利となるべし。されば米国無電会社より提起せられたる、太平洋横断新聞電報に対する低料金設定の事が、日本の商業及び国際関係にも有利なるべき事を、日本政府に確信せしむる事は望ましき事なり。
新聞電報に対する低料金の件は、事実を詳知せる各方面の日本人の已に衷心より賛成せる処なり。
本問題は一九二一年ホノルヽに於て開催せられたる世界新聞業者大会に於て充分討議の上、満場一致を以て賛成せられたるものにして、当時日本は頭本元貞氏其他によりて代表せられたりき。翌年日本の商業及び新聞関係者は逓信省に強き請願書を提出し、日本の利益の為めに必要なるものとして、米国との協同により新聞電報に低料金を課する事とし、以て日米両国間の充分なる通信機関を設けん事を申請せり。現国際通信社取締役岩永裕吉氏は請願者の一人なりき。一九二二年ホノルヽに於て開かれたる汎太平洋聯盟商業会議に於て、米国及亜細亜間に無電による料金低廉なる新聞通信を設くる事の必要を主張せる強き決議案が日本の東郷男爵によりて提出せられ満場一致を以て通過せり。一九二三年十月ポートランドに於て開かれたる太平洋外国貿易会議、一九二五年六月沙市に於ける全国外国貿易会議、一九二五年九月沙市に於ける米国商業会議所西部会に於ても同様の決議を通過せしめしが、其何れの会議に於ても日・支の実業関係より代表者出席せり。目下米国に在住せる日本の外交代表者及び商業関係者によりて行はれたる周到なる調査によりて、已に日本の代表的政治家及び実業家が此問題に関して述べし処は是認せらるゝに至るべく、又米国無電会社の提議に係る新聞電報一語十仙の案に対しても、日本政府は承認を与ふるものなりとして、以上の如く事実を開陳せる理由も諒解せらるべしと思惟するものなり。
(同封書類二)
       NEWS COMMUNICATION―JAPAN
         AND UNITED STATES.
  The petition following was prepared in September, 1922, by Mr. Y. Iwanaga, then an executive and now General Manager of "Kokusai", for presentation to the Department of Communication of Japan, and was signed by a number of leaders in the commercial and journalistic worlds of Japan. The matter was then left in the hands of Mr. Matsunaga, Director of the Nippon Dempo News Agency, who took it up with the Board of Communications. It is assumed that the contract made by the Japanese Government with the Radio Corporation of America, looking to exclusive rights for transmission of radio messages between America and Japan prevented adoption of the plan
 - 第52巻 p.120 -ページ画像 
 recommended in this petition.

    The Letter of Petition to the Minister of
            Communication
  As the relationship between the U.S. and Japan grows closer, the necessity to perfect the means of news conveyance for the sake of insuring good understanding between the two peoples becomes ever more peremptory, and that the news communications should be quick and unhampered goes without saying. But how is the actual condition? The undersigned are very sorry to have to say that much is still left to be desired in these regards.
  Speaking about the efficiency of the service, the present condition of the cable and the wrieless service between the U.S. and Japan is far from being enough to answer the requirement of the official, commerical and the press interest. Not infrequently are the Japanese people kept in the dark about some occurrences which have become public property in Europe and America since two or three days. At the time of the Washington Conference, the swelling of the volume of the news going back and forth between the Japanese and the Chinese delegates and their home government, then of those sent by the reporters who went to Washington from Japan and China, and lastly the volumes of the news sent to America from Japan and China to keep the staff staying at Washington informed of the conditions at home, increased some tens of times, resulting in a remarkable delay, sometimes 120 hours required for a cable to make from Washington to Tokyo. Although this is an extreme case, yet it will go to show that in many a case, as shown in the accompanying list, the delay kills the effect of the cable service to a considerable extent.
  As regards the rates for the press matters, the fee between Tokyo and San Francisco is 54 sen by wireless and 60 sen by cablegram per word. These are far and away higher than those charged between Europe and the U.S. This is significant considering the smaller number of the press firms and their far lesser incomes in Japan. The heavier burden of expenses often leads to the omissions of the informations which should in all propriety be either cabled abroad or sent home. During the session of the Washington Conference, the reprorters had sometimes to resort to the "Urgent Serivce" to avoid the delay, acquiescing in the payment of the prohibitive rates of 4.30 yen per word of the wireless and 5.70 yen per word of the calbegram.
  The result of such a high rate is the temptation to reduce the number of the words and, needless to say, yielding to such a temptation has often proven disastrous to the good understand
 - 第52巻 p.121 -ページ画像 
ing between the nations in the past. Compare this state of affairs with the "10 cents per word" now obtaining over the Atlantic and the "14 minutes" required between England and America at the time of the Conference even when the lines were most busily occupied.
  The recent remarkable development of Japan's position in the international circle has brought about a phenomenal increase of the words cabled from abroad, reaching a million and several hundred thousand words in a year. This is a signal increase when we think of the solitary figure of some 50,000 ten years ago. Great as the development has thus been, our figures are as yet nothing to compare with the figures for Europe and America. The distance is still appalling. As the international communication goes on developing, the volume of the news to be sent and brought will inevitably increase. The day when the volume goes up to fifty to sixty times the present figure will not be far too distant. With such immense possibilities right ahead of us, none can deny the argument that something must be done to remedy the present unsatisfactory situation both as regards the rates and general efficiency.
  There would be more than one way to meet the situation. The laying of th new lines may be one of the most effective of the contrivances to be devised for this end, if it did not involve a large expense and a great length of time. Under the present circumstances, the undersigned think that the quickest and the most practical way of solution would be the permission for the benefit of the press to use the wirless system of the American and the Japanese Navies for a definite space of time in a day at moderate rates. Of course such an arrangment will to some extent affect the number of communications dealt through your hand and result in the consequent decrease of the state income. That may also lead to some complications between your department and the American Radio Corporation. Such, however, will be but temporary. The closer development of the relationship between Japan and the U.S. consequent to the insurance of the better news service will induce an inevitable increase of commerical news and in that way more than make up the loss you will have to entail for the time being. We have heard some similar proposition is now being mooted by the American press companies and they seem to have already approached the authorities, and we are given to understand the U.S. Navy is ready to give their consent if the Japanese Navy and the U.S. Congress do not object to it.
  If therefore you consent to give an exceptional treatment to
 - 第52巻 p.122 -ページ画像 
 the news matters across the Pacific, such as the permission to use the U.S. naval facilities, we will try to approach the U.S. authorities with the same proposition. If, however, your freedom of action is fettered by the stipulation you have contracted with the Radio Corporation of America, then we have no objection to your making your permission "conditional on the consent of the said company." Your kind consideration of this our proposal will substantially help our business, and profoundly oblige
                 Yours, truly,

#6
2-10-26
(右訳文)
    日米間の新聞通信
左記請願書は、日本の逓信省に提出せんが為め、一九二二年九月当時国際通信社々員にして今日同社総支配人なる岩永裕吉氏によりて起草せられ、日本の実業界及び操觚界の重なる人々多数によりて署名せられたるものなり。本件は次で日本電報通信社取締役松永氏に委任せられ、氏は逓信局と交渉する処ありたり。日米両国間の無電通信に対する占有権を目的とせる、米国無電会社と日本政府との間に締結せられたる契約は、左の請願書中に記載せる計画の成立を阻止せり。
    逓信大臣に提出せる請願書
日米両国間の関係の密接に赴くに従ひ、両国間の諒解増進に資せんが為めに新聞通信機関の完成を計る事の必要は、益々重きを加ふると共に、新聞通信が迅速且つ故障なく行はるべきは謂ふ迄もなき処なり、然るに現状は如何、左記署名者は此等の点の今日甚だ不満足なるを遺憾とするものなり。
通信の能率に就て謂はんに、日米両国間の無電及び海底電信の現状は到底官用・商業用及び新聞用通信の必要を充たす事能はす。欧米に於て公表せられたる出来事にして、二・三日後に至り漸く日本人の耳に入るが如き事屡あり、華盛頓会議の際、日支の代表者が母国政府との間に往復せる電報、次で日支より華盛頓へ派遣せられたる新聞通信員より発せる電報、及び華盛頓へ滞在中なる外交幹部へ母国の情況を報せんが為めに日支より発せられたる電報の数は数十倍に上り、其結果甚しき遅着を来し、時に東京・華盛頓間の電報所要時数百二十時間を費したる事もあり。此は極端なる例なれども多くの場合に於ては、添附の表に示されたる如く、遅延によりて電報の効果を殺ぎし事著しきものありしは謂ふ迄もなき処なり。
新聞電報料金に就て謂はんに、東京・桑港間無線電信料一語に付五十四銭、海底電信料六十銭にして、之れを欧洲・北米間の料金に比較すれば格段の相違あり。而も日本に於る新聞社の数と其の収入の僅少なる点を考慮する時は頗る同情に値するものあり。料金高き時は、海外への発信も故国への発信も出来得べき丈け之れを省略する事となる。華府会議中、通信員は延着を避くる為め、無電一語に付四円卅銭、海
 - 第52巻 p.123 -ページ画像 
電一語に付五円七十銭といふ法外の料金にも不拘、時々「至急報」に依らざるべからざる事ありしなり。
料金が如此高率なるにより語数は勢ひ減少勝ちにて、之れが為め国際間の諒解に関し憂ふべき結果を来せる事あるは謂ふ迄もなき処なり。大西洋横断電信に於て「一語十仙」、而も華府会議中通信輻輳せる際に於てすら、英米間の通信には「十四分時」を要するのみなる情況と此れと比較せよ。
近来日本の国際的地位が著しく進歩したるが為め、日本へ到着する海外電報の数は著しく増加し、一ケ年百数十万語に上る。今より十年前五万語に過ぎざりしを思はゞ顕著なる増加なり。進歩如此大なりしに不拘、欧米の数に比すれば物の数にもあらす。実に霄壌の差違あるなり。国際通信の発達するに伴ひ受発する報道の分量も亦当然増加すべし。其分量が現在の数の五・六十倍に上る時の来たるは遠からざるべし。其増加の見込如此大なるよりすれば、料金及一般的能率に関し現在の不満足なる情況を改革する為め、可然方策を講するの必要なるは何人も否定せざる処なるへし。
此の形勢に順応する途は一にして止まらず。若し多額の費用と多大の年月を要せすば、新線を敷設する事も、此目的に添ふ有効なる一方法なるべし。現状に於て左記署名者《*》の考ふる処にては、此れが解決の為め最も敏速且つ最も実際的なる方法は、新聞通信の為めに毎日低廉なる料金により、毎日一定の時間を限り日米両海軍の無電を公開利用せしむる事なり。勿論如此取極めは或程度迄逓信省取扱ひの電信数を減少せしめ、従つて国庫収入にも影響を及ぼす事となるべし。又貴省と米国無電会社との間に紛糾を来す事も或は有之べきも、此に一時的の事にして、日米関係の密接となるに従ひ、商業通信は当然増加し、此くて一時蒙るべき損失を塡補するを得べし。此れと類似の計画が米国通信社より提起せられ、已に米国政府当局に申請せられ居る事を吾等は聞き及べるが、若し日本海軍が同意を与ふる時は、米国海軍も直ちに之れに同意すべく、又米国議会も反対せざるべき事を諒知せり。
されば米国海軍の無電装置使用を許可する等、太平洋横断の新聞通信に対して特別の取扱ひを許可せらるゝ時は、吾等は同一の請願を米国政府当局に提出せんとす。乍去、米国無電会社と逓信省との間に締結せられたる協定あるが為めに自由なる行動を執る能はずとせば、吾等は、「該会社の同意を得たる後」許可すとの条件付きにても可なれば許可あらん事を乞ふ。吾が提案に対し一考を与へられなば吾国の商業上にも多大の便益を得るに至るべし 頓首
*欄外記事
[署名者ノ姓名記入無之候


渋沢栄一書翰控 東郷外二名宛 大正一五年四月七日(DK520011k-0005)
第52巻 p.123-124 ページ画像

渋沢栄一書翰控  東郷外二名宛大正一五年四月七日   (渋沢子爵家所蔵)
    (別筆)
    東郷男爵・上田碩三・岩永祐吉《(岩永裕吉)》ノ三氏ヘ送リシモノ
拝啓 益御清適奉賀候、然らば加州サクラメント市ヴイ・エス・マクラツチ氏より別紙写の通り来示有之、翻訳により一読致候処、大体趣旨は結構と存候得共何分にも実際を承知不致候に付困却致候、就ては
 - 第52巻 p.124 -ページ画像 
専門家たる貴台に於て御考慮御願申上候上、同氏に対し回答立案致度候間、御多用中恐縮千万ながら御高見御回示被下度候
右拝願得貴意度如此御座候 敬具
  大正十五年四月七日
                     渋沢栄一
          様
  ○別紙ハ前掲。


(岩永裕吉)書翰 渋沢栄一宛大正一五年四月八日(DK520011k-0006)
第52巻 p.124 ページ画像

(岩永裕吉)書翰  渋沢栄一宛大正一五年四月八日  (渋沢子爵家所蔵)
  大正十五年四月八日            (別筆)
                       九日入手
                      岩永裕吉
    渋沢子爵閣下
謹啓
四月七日附を以て御下問のマクラツチー氏提唱の日米間無線電信新聞電報料金低減の件に就ては、先般来屡々同氏より小生にも来翰有之、実は我国当業者及び外務・逓信両当局の間に於ても問題となり居る事柄に有之、無論主意に於ては何人も異存無之処に有之候へ共、右新聞電報は最大限四十八時間迄の後廻し電報たる関係上、之が果して実用に適すべきや否や、又日米間の新聞電報料金低減と同時に、欧洲と日本との間の新聞電報料金低減も之を考究するの必要なきに非らずや等の意見も有之、且つ又、逓信当局に於ては、既に米国無線電信会社に対し右提案拒絶の回答を発したる今日に於て、子爵御自身マクラツチー氏の提案を其の儘、逓信当局に御勧告相成候は如何かと存ぜられ候尤も日本と海外諸国との間の商業並に新聞電報料金が著しく高価にして、之が為め我国の文化の発達に支障を来しつゝあることは、蓋し意想の外に有之候に付、電信会社名若しくは料金低減の条件等の具体的問題に触れず、大局論として閣下より当局に対し、一般の海外電報料金の低減を御勧告被下候は最も望ましき処に有之候。
就てはマクラツチー氏に対しては、「日本と海外諸国との間の電信料金に新聞電報なると商業電報なるとを問はず、一般に著しく高率にして、日本は勿論、日本と交渉を有する外国も共に之に苦しみつゝあるは誠に貴説の通りに付、海外電報料金低減の運動は之を援助したき考なり」位の主旨にして可然御回答遊ばされ候ては如何かと愚考仕候。
右不取敢御返事迄知斯御座候。 敬具


渋沢栄一書翰控 ヴィー・エス・マクラチ宛 大正一五年八月一九日(DK520011k-0007)
第52巻 p.124-125 ページ画像

渋沢栄一書翰控  ヴィー・エス・マクラチ宛大正一五年八月一九日
                    (渋沢子爵家所蔵)
          (栄一鉛筆)
          十五年八月四日伊香保客舎ニテ一覧政府当局ヘ交渉シテ事実料金低減ハ出来サルヤ充分ノ調査ヲ為シタ上ニテ回答致度事
       案
 加州桑港
  ハムボルト・バンク・ビルヂング九一〇
 - 第52巻 p.125 -ページ画像 
    ヴヰ・エス・マクラツチー殿
                   東京
                      渋沢栄一
拝復 二月十一日付御懇書拝見仕候処、雑用蝟集の為め御回答遷延致申訳無之候、然ば過般御申越の日米間新聞用無線電信料金低減の件は両国間の通信を頻繁ならしめ以て相互の了解を増進せんとの御意志に外ならずと拝察致候、御承知の通り日本と海外諸国間の電信料金は新聞用と商業用とを問はず、共に著しく不廉に有之、此が為め日本は勿論諸外国も共に苦痛を感じ居候間、電報料の低減に付ては研究致居候向も有之やに存候得共、此際右に付政府に交渉致候義は其時機に無之と存候に付ては、折角御懇切の御注意に候得共、老生に於て直ちに本問題を取扱ふ事を差控え度候間、事情御諒察の上不悪御承引被成下度願上候
右御回答旁々得意意度如此御座候 敬具
  大正十五年八月十九日
(欄外別筆)
[此儘にて回答する方宜かるべしとの当路者の回答を得たり
  ○右英文書翰ハ八月十九日付ニテ発送セラレタリ。


(ヴィー・エス・マクラチ)書翰 渋沢栄一宛一九二六年一〇月一三日(DK520011k-0008)
第52巻 p.125-127 ページ画像

(ヴィー・エス・マクラチ)書翰  渋沢栄一宛一九二六年一〇月一三日
                   (渋沢子爵家所蔵)
    SAN FRANCISCO CHAMBER OF COMMERCE
      MERCHANTS EXCHANGE BUILDING
        465 CALIFORNIA STREET
COMMUNICATION COMMITTEE
785 Market St.
                     October 13, 1926.
Viscount E. Shibusawa,
  1 Nichome Yeirakucho Kojimachiku,
  Tokyo, Japan.
My dear Viscount Shibusawa:
  In response to your letter of August 19th, which I have held in the hope that there might be developments to be called to your attention in the matter of the proposed reduction of news rates between Japan and America looking to promotion of better understanding and increased commercial relations.
  Last month the Japanese Government proposed, and subsequently the proposition was accepted and made effective, that the cable and radio rates between Japan and America for news transmission be reduced one third, that is to say from 27¢ to 18¢ per word.
  While this would indicate that the Japanese Government, in response to representations made to it by its commerical and diplomatic representatives in this country recognizes the desirability of a reduction in the rate, there is little probability that the 18¢ rate will result in any material increase in inter
 - 第52巻 p.126 -ページ画像 
change of news reports. It certainly will not justify the establishment of permanent daily news service such as is necessary in promoting the mutual commercial interests of the two countries.
  It offers encouragement, however, and the far seeing Japanese who have given consideration to this matter and those on this side who have studied it must continue their efforts until a rate is granted sufficiently low to encourage the permanent maintenance of comprehensive news reports between the two countries.
  It is noted from your letter that you felt reluctant to approach the authorities and urge action as experts were investigating the matter and your interference might be untimely. I take the liberty of suggesting, however, that your government experts have evidently given the matter full consideration and made report thereon; and there would seem to be no impropriety in your calling the attention of your government to the obvious fact that an 18¢ rate will not result in the establishment of permanent and comprehensive news reports between the two countries, such as you and I realize will best promote friendly understanding and the commercial relations of both.
  With thorough appreciation of your kindly sentiments in this matter and renewed assurances of my high esteem,
             Sincerely yours,
                   (Signed)
                V. S. McClatchy
VSM. DK
(右訳文)
          (栄一鉛筆)
          増田氏老生之代理として近日中出淵○勝次外務次官又ハ通商局長に会見しマツクラツチー氏之来状を一覧に供し何分之事情を篤と承合申度候事
          昭和二年一月五日一覧
 東京市                (十一月八日入手)
  子爵渋沢栄一閣下    桑港、一九二六年十月十三日
                ヴヰ・エス・マツクラツチー
拝啓 八月十九日附尊書順着拝見致候処、予て得貴意候日米両国諒解の増進並に通商関係の助長を目的とする、日米間の新聞電報料金低減の義に付ては多少の進展を見るべく、従て不遠閣下に申上候機会可有之と存じ、拝答を今日迄差控候次第に候
去月日本政府より日米間新聞電報料金の三分の一を低減し、一語二十七仙を一八仙と可為提案せられ、其後賛成を得て実施せらるゝ事と相成候、右は我国に滞在せる日本の商務官又は外交官の陳述により、料金低減の妥当を日本政府に於て認めたる事を示すものに候得共、十八仙の料金にては新聞通信の実質的増加を促がすべき見込み殆ど無之候
 - 第52巻 p.127 -ページ画像 
如此は両国相互の商業上の利益を助長するに必要なる日常の電報通信を成立せしむる所以にあらざる事明かに候
乍併料金の低減は吾人に奨励を与ふるものに有之候間、此問題に付考慮せし先見の明ある日本人並に此の問題につきて調査せし我国の人々は、将来両国間に各方面に亘る新聞通信を永久に継続せしめ得る様、十分料金を低減せらるゝまで努力せざるべからず候
目下専門家に於て調査中なるを以て之れに容喙する時期に無之、従て当局者に進言し又は勧説するを御躊躇被遊候旨の尊示拝承仕候、乍併貴国の政府当局は充分考慮を為したる上報告書を作製せられし事明に候、就ては閣下及び小生の希望せるが如き、両国の友情ある諒解と通商関係とを増進するに足るべき恒久的にして普遍的なる新聞通信の実現は一語十八仙の料金にては不可能なること明白に候間、此点に付貴国政府に御建言被下候ても敢て当を失したる事柄には非らずと存候
本件に関し御親切に御考慮被下候義を衷心より感謝し、併せて謹んで敬意を奉表候 敬具



〔参考〕Trans-Pacific Communication pp. 10-12(DK520011k-0009)
第52巻 p.127-129 ページ画像

Trans-Pacific Communication pp. 10-12
          (Corrected Copy)
          Trans-Pacific
          Communication

          How It Can Serve
          Commerce

     Report made to Commercial Conference
      of Pan-Pacific Union, at Honolulu,
          October 27th, 1922.
             By
         V. S. McCLATCHY
  ............
        CONDITIONS IN JAPAN.
  In Japan all radio stations and radio communications are under government control in either one of three departments. As to communication between the United States and Japan, there is a contract between the Radio Corporation of America and the Japanese government, under which the corporation named is given the exclusive right to handle commercial radio communications between the two countries through co-operation with Japanese stations. Authoritative information, however, is to the effect that this contract would not prevent by co-operation between the governments of the two countries a plan under which news messages could be transmitted through the government controlled stations of both countries.
  Such an arrangment could be easily effected by direct in
 - 第52巻 p.128 -ページ画像 
terchange between the U.S. Navy radio station at Honolulu, and one of the government stations in Japan. During the Arms Limitation Conference at Washington, there was a temporary arrangement between Japan and the United States, under which interchange of government news messages was secured, going east and west, by use of the government radio facilities of both countries. It has been published in Japan that Japan was willing to make a permanent arrangement along similar lines, but did not receive the necessary encouragement from the United States. I have the best authority for saying that there is certainly some mistake in this matter. From what I can learn, the United States administration in charge of operation of government radio facilities has not only been willing, but quite anxious to co-operate with Japan and countries of the Far East in securing desirable news communication.
  Very recently urgent representations were made to the communication department of Japan by a strong committee representing authoritatively the news organizations and larger newspapers of Japan, explaining the urgent necessity in the interests of Japan of full and reliable news communication between that country and the United States; the lack of present facilities and the present prohibitive rates, both by cable and radio and urging, as the quickest and most practical solution of the problem, that Japan co-operate with the United States for the use of government operated wireless stations in both countries for interchange of press reports, during a definite space of time each day, at moderate rates.
  In presenting this petition, the Committee called attention to the fact that during the Arms Limitation Conference, while the nominal rate for news between Tokyo and San Francisco is 54 sen by wireless and 60 sen by cable per word (one sen equals one-half cent) the congestion and delay was such that the facilities for press business could not be used to advantage, and recourse was necessarily had to "urgent service" at rates of Y4:30 and Y5:70 per word (equivalent to $2.15 and $2.85 respectively). Because of the expense involved, the matter had to be cut down materially and in consequence the messages were not understood as published, and created more or less friction.
  The representation was made also that while a low press rate might indicate a nominal decrease in revenue to the communication service, it would not really cause a diminution since the present rates do not encourage the sending of regular reports, while a moderate rate would, and that in consequence the actual revenue would perhaps be greater under the system
 - 第52巻 p.129 -ページ画像 
 recommended than under the present one.
  Publication has been made of the fact that a powerful company has been organized in Japan, in which Viscount Shibusawa is prominent, and in which large organizations like Mitsui, the Industrial Bank, Suzuki Co., the N.Y.K., the O.S.K., Takata Co., Okura Co., and Fujita Co. are represented, and application has been made by it to the Japanese Government for permission to operate wireless stations. If that permission be granted, it would be well for the Japanese Government to make the condition which it would seem the British Government has made in granting franchises to cable companies, to-wit: that daily facilities be provided for transmission of an adequate quota of news at a low word rate.
  ............
                V.S. McCLATCHY.
Sacramento, California,
October 15th, 1922.